• Photo: Maksym Kudymets
    Welcome to this photographic project about modern Ukrainian history. The events mentioned here started in November 2013, when the Revolution of Dignity began, and are still continuing today.
  • The Ukrainian nation is more than a thousand years old – the history of Ukraine dates back to the days of medieval Kyivan Rus’. Throughout the centuries Ukrainians have strived for sovereignty, through wars and uprisings, but this left the country vulnerable to invasions from its more powerful neighbors.
  • Photo: H. Pshenychny Central State CinePhotoPhono Archive of Ukraine
    From the middle of the 17th century, Muscovy’s policy has been to suppress Ukraine’s European spirit by annexing Ukraine’s territories. For over two centuries this plan was successful, right up until the demise of the last iteration of a Muscovite state – the USSR.
  • Photo: Yurko Dyachyshyn
    After 1991 Ukrainians wanted to regain their place in the European community, fighting problems of a post-Soviet economy and post-communist authorities.

Intro

  • Photo: AP
    In 2011 Viktor Yanukovych, the then President of Ukraine, announced his support of the Ukrainian nation’s pro-European choice and his readiness to join European organizations. One of the most important steps in the integration with Europe was the signing of the EU Association Agreement, which had been worked on since 2007. The majority of Ukraine’s population supported the idea of European integration. The only state that expressed its displeasure about this foreign policy vector was the Russian Federation.
  • Photo: Sergei Karpukhin, REUTERS
    Russia started to pressure Ukraine’s authorities, to stop the signing of the agreement. The President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin tried to bribe and blackmail Viktor Yanukovych into a refusal of a European future for Ukraine. Since the 17th century Russians have considered Ukraine to be in the zone of their geopolitical interests, the so-called ‘Russkiy mir’ (Russian world). Throughout the 20th century Russia wasn’t shy of showing the world its true colors when it came to Ukraine: Ukrainian People’s Republic was overrun by the Soviets in 1920; the man-made famine of 1932-1933 took the lives of more than 6 million Ukrainians; Executed Renaissance – the killing of the Ukrainian intelligentsia – took place in 1936-38.
  • Photo: Sergei Grits, AP
    In November 2013, a couple of days prior to the planned signing of the EU Association Agreement, Yanukovych announced that he was deferring, having succumbed to pressure from Russia. This move was met with a wave of anger across Ukraine; Ukrainians felt deceived. Leaders of the European countries expressed their concern over the deferment.
  • Photo: Ryan Anderson/Flickr/Creative Commons
    On the 21st of November, first in Kyiv, and later in other Ukrainian cities, massive protests started. ‘Euromaidan’ was born. Its name came from the capital’s main square – Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square), the place where the Granite Revolution and the Orange Revolution took place in 1990 and 2004 respectively. The former gave a push to Ukrainian independence, while the latter did not allow Viktor Yanukovych to falsify the results of the Presidential Elections of 2004. People came to protest, demanding the signing of the EU Association Agreement during the ‘Ukraine – EU’ summit in Vilnius.
  • Photo: Oleksandr Piliugin
    People came to protest, demanding the signing of the EU Association Agreement during the "Ukraine – EU" summit in Vilnius.
  • Photo: Konstantin Chernichkin
    Young Ukrainians and the intelligentsia (journalists, artists, and public figures) became the driving force of the protests. However, people from all social strata took part in the protests, making the movement for Ukraine in the EU nationwide.
  • Photo: Petro Zadorozhnyy
    People grew tired of the destructive, illegal realities in the country – corruption, fraud, concealing of criminals. The signing of the EU Association Agreement was considered to be a chance for change, and the deferral of the EU integration was a step backwards and loss of hope for modernization of the country.
  • Photo: AFP/tsn.ua
    On the night of 30th November a group of peaceful protesters was brutally attacked by the Special Units of Riot Police at Independence Square in Kyiv. Most protesters were students.
  • Photo: REUTERS
    Dozens of people were admitted to hospitals due to injuries that were a result of the attack. The police had been looking for the protesters all over the city and were taking them to local police stations.
  • Photo: Sergei Chuzavkov, AP
    A similar approach to the dispersal of protesters had been used in Russia for years, however, this was the first case of public violence on such a scale in Ukraine, and it prompted a radical reaction from society.
  • Photo: Volodymyr Shuvayev, AFP
    In the months to come Ukrainians found numerous photos of Russian servicemen and soldiers wearing Ukrainian police and Special Forces uniforms on social media.
  • Photo: Maks Trebuhov
    People injured in the clashes at Independence Square, and persecuted by the police, found shelter at St Michael's Gold-Domed Monastery. The protesters were able to get first aid, warmth from the bitter cold, food and rest.
  • Photo: Mstyslav Chernov
    On the 30th of November a spontaneous meeting took place at St Michael’s Square. More than 25,000 people were present; the community was shocked and angered by the government’s actions.
  • Photo: Lazlo Belichay, EPA
    The territory of the monastery became the heart of the protest movement – people started bringing food and warm clothes, and making donations.

November

  • Photo: Kostiantyn Chernichkin
    On the 1st of December over 1 million Ukrainians came to a demonstration in Kyiv, demanding justice for people injured in the violent police crackdown at Independence Square. Similar meetings occurred in other Ukrainian cities.
  • Photo: Natalia Kravchuk
    The citizens demanded the resignation of the Government, the sentencing of Vitaliy Zakharchenko, the Minister of Interior, and everyone involved in the violent crackdown. This and subsequent protests were called ‘viche’ – an old-Ukrainian name for a public meeting.
  • Photo: Maksym Balandiukh
    Protests in Ukraine attracted attention from the whole world, with major news agencies writing about the violent attack on students and the March of a Million. However, Russian media following the Kremlin’s propaganda line, wrote about "a small group of people" in the Kyiv centre, and called them "fascists".
  • Photo: Sergei Chuzavkov, AP
    Putin kept persuading Yanukovych to continue working in the same direction, offering him $3 billion credit and other economic aid. Russian authorities were reluctant to admit that Ukrainian citizens didn’t want their country to be a puppet of Russia.
  • Photo: GLEB GARANICH, REUTERS
    On December 1st, people started to set up a camp at Independence Square in Kyiv. It was announced that the peaceful protest would be permanent and its only ending could be the fulfillment of all of the Euromaidan’s demands.
  • Photo: Sergey Supinsky, AFP
    The camp at Independence Square started to grow: soon, it had its own kitchens, stage, first-aid stations, security, and even university. Everything was organized spontaneously without any help from authorities, thanks to ordinary people and their donations.
  • Photo: Markiyan Matsekh
    Similar protests occurred in other regions of Ukraine. Camps had been set up in many cities, mainly used for protests and demonstrations and the collections of donations (usually food, clothes, and medication) for the protesters in Kyiv. Euromaidan was also supported in many countries abroad, primarily by activists and artists.
  • Photo: Volodymyr Shuvayev, AFP
    However, then-President Yanukovych rejected all of the Euromaidan’s demands and refused to negotiate with the protesters. Despite having promised to respect their rights, on the night of December 11th, authorities attempted to destroy the protesters camp.
  • Photo: Maksym Balandiukh
    Hundreds of policemen and Special Forces units were involved in the attack. However, thousands of Kyiv citizens rushed to help in the city centre, despite the freezing temperatures, -10°C (14°F). People stood shoulder to shoulder, holding back the attackers and protecting the Maidan territory, not allowing the camp to be destroyed.
  • Photo: Mykhaylo Petiakh
    Next morning the protesters brought forward a new demand - the resignation of Yanukovych.
  • Photo: Brendan Hoffman, Getty images
    Having stood its ground, the Euromaidan became the territory of freedom in the country where Yanukovych and his cronies played by their own rules. Kyiv’s city centre had turned into a Zaporizhian Cossack Sich – a community of the free and the proud.
  • Photo: Petro Zadorozhnyy
    The authorities attitude towards the protesters only drew more people. Thousands of volunteers started to support Maidan, collecting food, clothes, medication, and donations.
  • Photo: Vladyslav Musienko
    In order to discredit the national protest movement, authorities started organizing actions against Maidan. "Anti-Maidan" was created: people were brought to Kyiv, most of them were either paid or threatened with loss of employment. "Titushky" – hooligans and thugs – were employed to provoke clashes.

December

  • Photo: YURI KOCHETKOV, EPA
    After losing allies in the European Parliament and legitimacy among the Ukrainian people, the then-President, Yanukovych, sought closer ties with Russia. He started playing out Russian-type scenarios by oppressing human rights and freedoms.
  • Photo: Maks LEVIN, LB
    The 16th of January became the turning point. The Verkhovna Rada (Parliament) passed a bill that oppressed freedom of speech and assembly and the work of independent community organizations. The Deputies made it illegal to express alternative ideas or points of view by implementing censoring of the internet and obligatory registration of websites. SIM-cards were to be sold only on the presentation of an ID card.
  • Photo: ZN.UA
    The "Dictatorship Bill" was passed thanks to a pro-presidential majority in the parliament, which consisted of Communists and Party of Regions’ members, who passed the bill without even reading it.
  • Photo: Kudymets Maksym
    By this time multiple instances of kidnappings and attacks on the activists had occurred. Thugs were brought to Kyiv to destabilize the situation on the streets – they were burning cars, mugging and threatening people. To fight the growing criminal chaos, the citizens organized special communities, including "Auto Maidan".
  • Photo: GURNIAK VIKTOR, LUFA
    The citizens refused to give up their constitutional rights and freedoms, and rose in rebellion against the tyranny. Hrushevskyi Street, located next to the buildings of the Government of Ukraine and Verkhovna Rada, became a battleground for protesters and the police. Firearms, stun-and-smoke grenades, and even armoured fighting vehicles were used by the police and Special Forces units.
  • Photo: Trebukhov Maksym
    Russian servicemen were known to be secretly taking part in the clashes, dressed in Ukrainian police uniforms. Such actions were against the laws of Ukraine. The police captured and humiliated the protesters by beating them up, undressing them, and forcing them to be photographed naked in freezing temperatures.
  • Photo: Ratushniak Oleksandr
    Several people died and hundreds were injured in the clashes because of brutal, illegal actions of the police. When the confrontation arose on Hrushevskyi street, the authorities started organizing assassinations and kidnappings of the injured from hospitals.
  • Photo: Kudymets Maksym
    After several days of clashes the police retreated. Euromaidan announced it would stay until all previously specified demands were met.

January

  • Photo: Maks Levin
    On February, 18th 2014, protesters organized peaceful demonstration, demanding the annulment of the ‘Dictatorship Bill’. But the authorities refused to listen.
  • Photo: Vladyslav Musienko
    Despite the promise of the authorities to guarantee security of the protesters, several hundreds armed thugs and the police attacked the activists. These events were the beginning of the Euromaidan’s three most terrifying and bloody days.
  • Photo: REUTERS, Stringer
    The authorities were using armored fighting vehicles, snipers, and armed thugs. Euromaidan was to be taken by storm.
  • Photo: Alexander Sherbakov, AP
    More than a hundred people died, thousands were injured.
  • Photo: Yurko Dyachyshyn
    The violent crackdown of Maidan made people from all over Ukraine leave their homes and join the protesters in Kyiv or to protest in their native cities.
  • Photo: Yurko Dyachyshyn
    As the authorities ignored protesters’ demands, citizens all over Ukraine occupied regional governmental buildings.
  • Photo: Palamarchuk Pavlo
    The police deserted police stations and departments. Citizens established community guards to patrol the cities and protect them from criminal gangs.
  • Photo: YouTube screenshots
    Then-President Yanukovych lost control of the situation in Kyiv, western, central, and southern regions of Ukraine. On the night of February, 22nd 2014 Viktor Yanukovych left Kyiv for Kharkiv, planning to attend a separatist-oriented meeting that promoted separation of the Eastern regions from Ukraine, organized with support from Russia. However, his plan was not successful.
  • Photo: Konstantin Chernichkin, REUTERS
    Having taken stolen money, Yanukovych and officials from his Government fled to Russia. On the basis of the Constitution of Ukraine, Yanukovych was dismissed from the position of President due to his inability to fulfill his presidential duties. A new Government was created with Arseniy Yatseniuk as Prime Minister. The speaker of the Verkhovna Rada, Oleksandr Turchynov according to the Constitution was proclaimed acting President.
  • Photo: Yurko Dyachyshyn
    After the President fled the country, people discovered numerous instances of power abuse and corruption. Lavish private residences of the ex-President, Prosecutor General of Ukraine, and other officials were opened to the public. According to official sources, these people didn’t run any businesses and such wealth seemed impossible.
  • Photo: Brendan Hoffman, Europress
    According to the Office of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine, Viktor Yanukovych had stolen more than $100 billion from the national treasury.
  • Photo: Lazlo Beliczay, EPA
    Ukraine paid a high price for its liberation from the dictatorship and its civilized choice to be part of Europe.
  • Photo: Baz Ratner, Reuters
    More than 100 people had been killed during the protests that have become known as the Revolution of Dignity that lasted from November 2013 until February 2014. Not only were Ukrainians the victims of the Yanukovych’s regime, but also people of Belarusian, Armenian, and Georgian ethnicity.
  • Photo: Vladyslav Musienko
    All of them were included in the memorial of martyrs, which is known as the Heavenly Hundred.
  • Photo: Yurko Dyachyshyn
    After the overturn of Yanukovich’s regime, measures were taken to stabilize the economy and a return to peaceful life. Ukrainians got the chance to hold a legitimate presidential election on May 25th to provide the country with a new leader.
  • Photo: Vladyslav Musienko
    While the work of police forces in Kyiv was brought to order, the "Maidan Self-Defence" (voluntary organization, which appeared during the revolution to keep order and protect Maidan from riot police attacks and provocateurs) was partly executing its duties. In particular, Ministry buildings, Parliament and embassies of foreign countries were under their guard.
  • Photo: Volodymyr Hontar, UNIAN
    The new Government immediately renewed activities in European integration policy.

February

  • Photo: Ivan Sekretarev, AP
    When it became clear that the attempt to bribe Ukrainian authorities had been defeated and the new authority was heading in a European direction, Russia’s government resorted to direct military aggression.
  • Photo: Sean Gallup, GETTY
    Russia seized state institutions, important infrastructural assets, using the presence of its armed forces that were a part of The Black Sea Fleet in Crimea. Russia inherited this fleet from the Soviet Union. Its disposition on the territory of Ukraine was provided for a limited time and backed by intergovernmental agreements.
  • Photo: ANTON PEDKO, EPA
    Russian aggression broke all the international and interstate agreements, in which it recognized the present boundaries and guaranteed territorial integrity of Ukraine, for example, the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances (1994). However, it was only the beginning of Russian President Putin’s "personal game".
  • Photo: VIKTOR DRACHEV, AFP
    In the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, an inalienable territorial part of Ukraine, the Russian military and a self-proclaimed puppet authority organized a “referendum” on annexation to Russia. The next day Russia immediately recognized the results of this pseudo-referendum and carried out, in the Kremlin, a procedure for “new land adoption” in perfect Soviet style.
  • Photo: Ivan Sekretarev, AP
    In the Crimean peninsula the occupational authorities commenced intimidatory actions aimed at Ukrainians and Kirimli (Crimean Tatars). Patriotically disposed citizens, are intimidated and kidnapped – not everyone is found alive again.
  • Photo: Sergei Grits, AP
    The international community blames Russian acts and applies economic sanctions. With one hundred votes “pro” the United Nations General Assembly recognizes Crimea as part of Ukraine. Only the Russian Federation and its “spiritual allies” – Armenia, Belarus, Bolivia, Cuba, North Korea, Nicaragua, Sudan, Syria, Zimbabwe, Venezuela, – stand against.
  • Photo: Artur Shvarts, EPA
    After the Crimean occupation, Russia starts an attack on the rights of the Crimean Tatars. They didn’t accept the occupation, as it was the second time in the last century that their historical Fatherland had been taken by an enemy. The previous time, it was the dictator Joseph Stalin, who deported them to Central Asia.
  • Photo: Alexander Polegenko, AP Photo
    The abductions and murders of political opponents and people of non-Russian nationality appear to be commonplace in Crimea. Groundless searches of the private property of Muslim religious organizations become common practice. At first the Crimean Tatars were forbidden to commemorate the anniversary of their peoples deportation, then they were allowed to do so, but only under police and military supervision.
  • Photo: Reuters, stringer
    The Russian government prohibits the leaders of the Crimean Tatars – Mustafa Dzhemilev and Refat Chubarov – to enter Crimea. The work of The Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (traditional Tatar people’s government) is blocked in Simferopol.
  • Photo: Lyseyko Markiyan
    As a result of the occupation of Crimea more than 19,000 people leave for mainland Ukraine.

March

  • Photo: REUTERS
    After the occupation, the Russian government tries to further destabilize the situation in Ukraine by separating eight regions – a third of the total number, from the rest of the country
  • Photo: YANNIS BEHRAKIS, REUTERS
    In the Spring of 2014 Russian saboteurs start their activity in the southern and eastern parts of Ukraine.
  • Photo: Roman PELIPEY, EPA
    For the realization of their provocative acts they recruit poor and uneducated people who are easier to manipulate.
  • Photo: VIKTOR DRACHEV, AFP
    Special Units of the Russian army invade the territory of the Luhansk and Donetsk regions, following the well-known “Crimean scenario”.
  • Photo: MARKO DJURICA, Reuters
    The Russians take under their control a number of administrative offices and distribute weapons to criminals, who had been for several years financially supported by Russia.
  • Photo: Vk mikaronkainen
    Simultaneously, in six other regions of southern and eastern Ukraine, for which, together with Donetsk and Luhansk regions, the Russians made up the offensive name "Novorossia" (“New Russia”), numerous provocateurs brought from Russia organize riots.
  • Photo: Sergei Poliakov, AP
    In Odesa such separatist riots end in the tragic death of 40 separatists and Russia supporters.
  • Photo: Олександр Прилепа УНІАН
    But in the Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhia, Kherson, Mykolaiv and Odessa regions there was no direct Russian aggression or intervention, as a result separatist movements were rapidly neutralized – most often by local residents.
  • Photo: Reuters
    In the occupied territories of Donetsk and Luhansk, Ukraine announces the beginning of an Anti-Terrorist Operation (ATO).
  • Photo: Reuters
    ATO begins under very complicated conditions, as a result of the destructive activities of Viktor Yanukovych and hundreds of Russian agents in the Ukrainian security forces. In fact, the army was unfit to act, and sabotage ruled within the security services.
  • Photo: Maks LEVIN
    Some of patriotic deployable security forces were able to localize the activity of separatists. The Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Interior started creating volunteer battalions – with their help they were able to raise the morale of the army and to curb the militants’ aggression.

April

  • Photo: Petro Zadorozhnyy
    A great number of common citizens began to support the armed forces of Ukraine. They organized themselves and with the help of voluntary organisations provided soldiers with necessary clothes, food, and medical supplies and helped to provide and repair equipment.
  • Photo: Anastasia Sirotkina, Associated Press
    In spite of strong efforts by Russia, their plan to provoke disunity in the country was unsuccessful. In particular, Russia failed to intervene in the presidential elections in Ukraine. Petro Poroshenko won by an overwhelming majority in all regions.
  • Photo: Facebook.com, petroporoshenko
    The peoples votes proved that the inhabitants of all regions have the same desire: to preserve the integrity of the state and to build a country, based on European values.

May

  • Photo: Reuters
    Russian efforts to weaken Ukraine with the help of the saboteurs and mercenaries-terrorists didn't achieve their goal. That’s why Russia invaded Ukraine, with the help of its regular troops, without a declaration of war.
  • Photo: Reuters
    The Russian invasion provoked the expansion of sanctions against Russia by free world.
  • Photo: Serhiy Loiko/Facebook
    Owing to a total control over the Russian media, the Kremlin government tries to conceal the commencement of war from its people, but hundreds of dead bodies of Russian soldiers arrive back home.

June

  • Photo: Oleksandr Ratushniak
    Malaysian Airlines flight MH17, en route from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur, was brought down on 17 July 2014 in territory controlled by pro-Russian separatists, killing all 298 passengers.
  • Photo: Joshua Paul, AP
    The flight was brought down by anti-aircraft missile system “Buk-M” that had been brought from Russia. The terrorists claim responsibility immediately after the destruction of the aircraft, but then, realizing their mistake start to deny their involvement. Russia also starts to disavow its participation and even the possession of “Buk-M” by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
  • Photo: DOMINIQUE FAGET, AFP
    At the same time the terrorists don’t provide an opportunity for an international investigation team to conduct an objective investigation of the tragedy as the great part of the area of the disaster was mined. Parts of the wreckage is smuggled to Russia and sold as scrap metal by the terrorists.

July

  • Photo: Hromadske.tv
    In parts of Donetsk and Luhansk controlled by the terrorists, the situation is on the verge of a humanitarian disaster.
  • Photo: Sergei Karpukhin, Reuters
    The terrorists fire shells into residential quarters and infrastructure objects.
  • Photo: Mauricio Lima, NYT
    They commit mass crimes against civilians such as victimization, beating, murder, kidnapping and assault.
  • Photo: EPA
    Muslim soldiers from Caucasus emerge in the cities. Providing evidence of foreign intervention in the conflict in Ukraine.
  • Photo: TASS
    Various gangs of terrorists are fighting against each other in order to control territory. They use heavy weapons during their fights, and that leads to the death of civilians. More than 514 000 people have been displaced from Donetsk and Luhansk because of the war.
  • Photo: Darko Vojinovic, AP
    With active Russian assistance, fighters carry out systematic destruction of the economy and the infrastructure.
  • Photo: Maks LEVIN
    More than 960 km of motorways and 30 km of bridges have been destroyed as well as more than 4500 dwellings as of the middle of November 2014.
  • Photo: Marko Djurica, Reuters
    Equipment, especially that used for weapons manufacturing is stolen from several enterprises, and smuggled into Russia. Coal mined on the occupied territory is also stolen by the Russian Federation.

August

  • Photo: Roman Pilipey, EPA
    Ukrainian authorities are going to a lot of effort to provide normal living conditions in the regions reclaimed from terrorists. All clean-up operations are carried out with maximum precision.
  • Photo: Petro Zadorozhnyy
    Hundreds of tons of humanitarian aid have been delivered by Ukrainian government to the areas reclaimed from the terrorists. Almost all schools and kindergartens have been restored; pension benefits and salaries are paid regularly.
  • Photo: Sergey Kozlov, EPA
    In order to protect people, the Security Service of Ukraine takes anti-diversion measures. The forces construct defense lines, sometimes with the help of local volunteers.
  • Photo: Maks Levin
    Ukrainian citizens all over the country support the government in this war: from West to East thousands of Ukrainians collect a millions of hryvnias in support of the Ukrainian army.
  • Photo: Ukrainian Ministery of DefenSe
    An unprecedented rise in patriotism, uniting the country into a nation, the creation of the new, truly national army: this is how Ukrainians have reacted to this Russian aggression.
  • Photo: Maks Levin
    Hundreds of Ukrainian soldiers, who have given their lives in the war for independence, the civilians who have become victims of the aggressor, will be recognized as heroes in the contemporary history of Ukraine. In their turn, Ukrainians will know the price of independence and cherish it.
  • Photo: ROMAN PILIPEY, EPA
    The renewed European nation of Ukrainians definitely will not allow anyone to doubt its right to exist, to have its own history and its own country.
  • Photo: Petro Zadorozhnyy
    Ukraine has now received a new army, free of Soviet remnants – an army of patriots, in which it doesn’t matter in what region they where born or what language they speak or what religion they practice, as long as all of them are Ukrainian citizens.
  • Photo: Ministry of Defense of Ukraine
    Of course, Ukrainian Army still has to conduct fundamental reforms in order to reach the level of Western military forces. It is also obvious that, unfortunately, that command of the army is far fromt perfect due to the lack of practical experience. However, the Ukrainian army has introduced some technical reforms and hopefully will exceed the Russian one in this respect.
  • Photo: GRABAR VITALIY, LUFA
    An important fact to note, is that the Ukrainian army has already bested the Russians by its level of morale – dozens of peoples' names and stories of the newest Ukrainian heroes are still waiting to be told. Unfortunately, thousands of Russians won't be able to come back home anymore and tell the truth about this bad war which was started by the Kremlin because they're lying unknown in a number of mass graves on the territory of Ukraine.
  • Photo: Olivier Hoslet Pool, AFP
    During the last year Ukraine has a new president, government and parliament, which has accepted the public obligation to rule the country democratically and lead it in a European manner.
  • Photo: Valentyn Ogirenko, REUTERS
    The Anti-Corruption Law begins the lustration process and government reforms. Every official who tries to avoid the lustration and continues to commit corrupt acts, won’t escape – Ukrainians have stopped being afraid of authorities.
  • Photo: Maks LEVIN
    The new Iron Curtain, which draws a boundary between democratic and totalitarian worlds, will soon appear on the eastern border of Ukraine. The ratification of the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement is only the first step.
  • Photo: SAUL LOEB, REUTERS
    Modern Ukrainians, as their ancestors during the last thousands years – the Rus people from the Kievan Rus, (who held back the Mongols) and Cossacks (who held back the Tatar invasion), are ready to rescue European civilization from the Eastern Horde again.
  • Photo: Ratushniak Oleksandr
    And this time it will be forever.

Autumn